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I described the installation of multi-site WordPress here with nginx webserver and php-fpm processes both running as user www-data. According to WordPress, the webserver should have read access to all data and only the WordPress user should have write access. The concept of a WordPress user relates to hosted environments. So how to implement these requirements on your own VPS? First of all, php-fpm supports the concept of pools. Each pool can run with an unique user, separate from the webserver user. So each site should run in a separate pool. This results in the following accounts: webserver: www-data user (default for nginx on debian) site 1:Read More →

If you want to run single WordPress site, best to use a WordPress hosting offer. If you want to run 5 WordPress sites, it is often more economical to get a VPS and configure multi-site. But you will face much more install and admin work, especially if you avoid using tools like Plesk etc. On a fresh Debian 10 server install, I started with: apt update; apt upgrade —> set timezone timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Berlin —> verify status of timers systemctl list-timers —> install zip & unzip for Duplicator (WordPress plugin) apt install zip unzip Make sure to run: apt update apt list –upgradable regularly andRead More →

On a new Debian 10 server I wanted to create some system accounts. Like those being used by mysql, postfix and ntp: messagebus:x:104:105::/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin unscd:x:105:109::/var/lib/unscd:/usr/sbin/nologin ntp:x:106:112::/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin mysql:x:108:114:MySQL Server,,,:/nonexistent:/bin/false postfix:x:109:116::/var/spool/postfix:/usr/sbin/nologin Account are created with useradd, or adduser? Well, man useradd tells me this is a low level command, so better use adduser. Fair enough. man adduser clearly states how to create a system account, use the –system flag. Reading futher, man adduser tells me, that “A home directory is created by the same rules as for normal users“. Really, for a system user? No problem, just add the –no-create-home flag and the problem is solved. What thisRead More →

The new IC-705 has many functions. One of them is D-Star terminal mode (TM). Icom presents TM in two flavours: internal and external. Internal TM uses the WLAN connection and connects directly to the internet, no additional hardware required. However, you have to configure a TM capable reflector in settings. So changing reflector means changing settings. What is needed here is some TM “proxy”, that handles all connections and routes them to the different reflectors, based on D-Star linking commands. In addition, this proxy should implement some form of heartbeat so that the incoming UDP port on your router remains open, even when there is noRead More →